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The term presbyopia means "old eye" and is a vision condition involving the loss of the eye's ability to focus on close objects.


Presbyopia is a condition that occurs as a part of normal aging and is not considered to be an eye disease. The process occurs gradually over a number of years. Symptoms are usually noticeable by age 40-45 and continue to develop until the process stabilizes some 10-20 years later. Presbyopia occurs without regard to other eye conditions.

Causes and symptoms

In the eye, the crystalline lens is located just behind the iris and the pupil. Tiny ciliary muscles pull and push the lens, adjusting its curvature, and thereby adjusting the eye's focal power to bring objects into focus. As individuals age, the lens becomes less flexible and elastic, and the muscles become less powerful. Because these changes result in inadequate adjustment of the lens of the eye for various distances, objects that are close will appear blurry. The major cause of presbyopia is loss of elasticity of the lens of the eye. Loss of ciliary muscle power, however, is also believed to contribute to the problem.

Symptoms of presbyopia result in the inability to focus on objects close at hand. As the lens hardens, it is unable to focus the rays of light that come from nearby objects. Individuals typically have difficulty reading small print, such as that in telephone directories and newspaper advertisements, and may need to hold reading materials at arm's length. Symptoms include headache and eyestrain when doing close work, blurry vision, and eye fatigue. Symptoms may be worse early in the morning or when individuals are fatigued. Dim lighting may also aggravate the problem.


Presbyopia is officially diagnosed during an eye examination conducted by eye specialists, such as optometrists or ophthalmologists. After completing optometric college, doctors of optometry screen patients for eye problems and prescribe glasses and contact lenses. In contrast, ophthalmologists are medical doctors who specialize in eye diseases. They perform eye surgery, treat eye diseases, and also prescribe reading glasses and contact lenses.

A comprehensive eye examination requires at least 30 minutes. Part of the examination will assess vision while reading by using various strength lenses. If the pupils are dilated with drugs to permit a thorough examination of the retina, an additional hour is required. The cost of eye examinations can range from $40 to $250 depending on the complexity and site of the examination and the qualifications and reputation of the examiner. Some insurers cover the cost of routine eye examinations, while others do not. A thorough eye examination is recommended at regular intervals during the adult and aging years to monitor and diagnose eye conditions. However, individuals frequently self-diagnose presbyopia by trying on inexpensive mass-produced reading glasses until they find a pair that permits reading without strain.


Presbyopia cannot be cured, but individuals can compensate for it by wearing reading glasses, bifocal reading glasses, or trifocal eyeglasses. A convex lens is used to make up for the lost automatic focusing power of the eye. Half-glasses can be worn, which leave the top open and uncorrected for distance vision. Bifocals achieve the same goal by allowing correction of other refractive errors (improper focusing of images on the retina of the eye).

In addition to reading glasses, contact lenses have also been found to be useful in the treatment of presbyopia. The two common types of contact lenses prescribed for this condition are bifocal and monovision contact lenses.  The bifocal contact lens wearer must be motivated to invest the time it requires to maintain contact lenses and be involved in occupations that do not impose high visual demands. Further, bifocal contact lenses may limit binocular vision. Bifocal contact lenses are relatively expensive, in part due to the time it takes the patient to be accurately fitted.


The changes in vision due to aging usually start in a person's early 40s and continue for several decades. At some point, there is no further development of presbyopia, as the ability to accommodate is virtually gone.


There is no known way to prevent presbyopia.

Key Terms:

The ability of the eye to change its focus from near to distant objects.



Binocular vision
Using both eyes at the same time to see an image.



Ciliary muscles
The small muscles that permit the lens to change its shape in order to focus on near or distant objects.



Lens (or crystalline lens)
The eye structure behind the iris and pupil that helps focus light on the retina.



Visual acuity
Sharpness or clearness of vision.


For Your Information



  • Ernest, J. Terry. "Changes and Diseases of the Aging Eye." In Geriatric Medicine, ed. Christine K. Cassel, et al. New York: Springer, 1997.



  • Newell, Frank W. "Optical Defects of the Eye." In Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts. 8th ed. St. Louis: Mosby, 1996.





  • Miller, Martha. "Your Aging Eyes." Better Homes & Gardens (July 1996): 46-51.





  • American Academy of Ophthalmology. 655 Beach Street, P.O. Box 7424, San Francisco, CA 94120-7424.



  • American Optometric Association. 243 North Lindbergh Blvd., St. Louis, MO 63141. (314) 991-4100.



  • Lighthouse National Center for Vision and Aging. 111 E. 59th St., New York, NY 10022. (800) 334-5497.



  • National Eye Institute. 2020 Vision Place, Bethesda, MD 20892-3655. (301) 496-5248.



Source:, Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine, Published December, 2002 by the Gale Group (abridged)

The Essay Author is Elaine Souder PhD.

Other facts of interest regarding reading glasses alternatives, including the use of "eye excersices" to see better can be seen at: